A powerful question I have learned to ask students is, "What do you notice?"
One of the reasons why this question is so powerful is because students can't be wrong. Only a student can know what they notice.
I first picked up this question in an education talk about poetry. The speaker asked us "What do you notice about the poem?" NOT "What do you think the poem means?" Collectively, we noticed rhymes. We noticed rhythms. We noticed themes. We noticed alliteration. We noticed contrasting words. We noticed metaphor. We noticed allusion. We noticed a shift in mood across stanzas. We noticed repetition. We noticed imagery...
Out of our noticing, meaning of the poem emerged.
And so, too, I have learned to ask this question in science. Present students with phenomena and ask what they notice... not to predict what will happen. Not ask them to explain. Not solve for a number. Simply ask them to notice and ponder and let questions and meaning emerge.